Ruby and Sapphire
|No indication of thermal treatment|
|No gemological constraints (for instance no altered inclusions) are present which would indicate that a heat enhancement process was applied.|
|Enhanced by heat (no residues present)|
|Enhanced by heat – residues insignificant (indication of very small residues within fissures only). Clarity and/or color are enhanced by heat. The applied type of enhancement for the ruby or sapphire under consideration is, according to the opinion of GRS GemResearch Swisslab, considered a permanent enhancement. Extremely small residues of glass-like materials present in cavities or as isolated, extremely small residues in fissures affecting the weight of the gemstone less than approximately 0.001 carat. ‘A-type treatment’ such as present in the ruby or sapphire under consideration are, according to the opinion of GRS GemResearch Swisslab, permanent enhancements. Enhancements such as ‘type A’ are considered permanent and will always be mentioned on the front page of the report.|
|Enhanced by heat – minor residues are present (within fissures only).
Clarity and/or color are enhanced by heat. Minor residues of glass-like materials are present in fissures. Enhancements such as ‘B-type treatment’ are considered permanent and will always be mentioned on the front page of the report.
|Transitional grade between H(b) and H(d).
Clarity and/or color are enhanced by heat. Residues of glass-like materials are present in cavities and/or in fissures. Enhancements such as ‘type C’ are considered permanent and will always be mentioned on the front page of the report.
|Enhanced by heat – significant and deep reaching residues present within fissures and cavities filled with lead glas (also known as "Composite Ruby")|
|Enhanced by heat and light elements (such as beryllium).
Clarity and/or color are enhanced by heat and diffusion of light elements such as beryllium, inducing color zoning by internal migration of trace elements (incl. beryllium) and defects, and formation of color centers. (Not corresponding to conventional surface diffusion treatment), Treatment is permanent. Recutting requires special care if thin orange rims are confined to the surface.
|Enhanced by pressure and high temperature (PHT).
Color enhanced by high heat under relatively high pressure (not comparable to HPHT treatment applied to diamonds).
|Clarity and/or color are enhanced by heat (minor residues of foreign solid materials may be present within fissures and/or cavities).
This comment is not in use anymore but might be seen on older reports.
CE(O): Grading of clarity enhancement of emeralds
The comment ‘Non-enhanced clarity features present’, indicates the presence of empty or dried out fissures at the time of examination. Non-enhanced clarity features are graded in accordance to their visual relevance: "very minor, minor and prominent". When graded “prominent", obvious white/untreated areas of stones cracks are visible. Such stones will not qualify for GRS-type colors and will be marked with the additional comment: "Color grading not applied”.
Other possible treatments specified on GRS gemstone reports
- Application of colorless oil/ or epoxy-like resins and/or was
- Irradiation, use of nuclear bombardment
- Conventional surface diffusion, or any combination of the above
Other possible comments on GRS reports
|The stone has been tested with a photoluminescence spectrometer.|
|The stone has been tested with a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. We use this method to check heated sapphires for possible beryllium-diffusion treatments.|
|The stone has been tested using a Raman spectrometer. This test is often used to identify minerals or individual parts of gems or ornamental objects.|
|The stone has been tested using a FTIR spectrometer.|
|The stone has been tested using a EDXRF spectrometer. EDXRF spectrometers are used to analyse the chemical composition of the tested material.|
Important information and limitation of the use of GRS Gemresearch Swisslab gemstone reports
All GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG gemstone reports will be printed on original paper (marked with GRS) and will bear an official signature. No corrections or alternations of any form shall be accepted on the gemstone report. All gemstone reports are laminated for protection. The gemstone reports trademarks such as GRS, H(a), E(IM), GRS-type ‘pigeon’s blood’ or service marks of GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written authorization of GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG. This GRS report must contain two GRS holograms otherwise this report is not valid. A GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG gemstone report contains the identification of gemstones by photographic images, descriptions, dimensions and weight. It states an opinion on their authenticity, treatment, country of origin (if determinable), quality and rarity (does not always apply). This GRS report does not constitute a guarantee for or an appraisal of the object or gemstone described there in. The physical appearance of an object or gemstone may differ from its photographic image on the gemstone report. Determination of the authenticity and country of origin of a gemstone is based on the analysis of its chemical and physical properties and internal characteristics (e.g. inclusions and growth structures) using standard gemological instruments and modem analytical instruments including spectrometers. The conclusion on the country of origin, authenticity and treatment of gemstones is an opinion of the laboratory based on the direct comparison of the findings with those obtained from the analyses of reference materials, as well as those in published literature. The laboratory to the extent reasonably possible continuously updates this knowledge.
Unless expressly disagreed by the client, the enhancement of rubies and sapphires are mentioned under ‘comments’ as follows:
• No indication of thermal treatment – No gemological constraints (for instance no altered inclusions) are present which would indicate that a heat-treatment process has been applied. • E Clarity and/or color are enhanced by heat. Minor residues of foreign solid materials may be present within fissures and/or cavities. The applied type of enhancement of the ruby or sapphire under consideration is considered a permanent enhancement according to the opinion of GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG. Detailed analyses of the residues present in the gemstone include the following grading (abundance of healed fissures not graded below):
• H – Enhanced by heat (no residues present) • H(a) or E – Enhanced by heat, residues insignificant (indication of very small residues within fissures only) • H(b) or E – Enhanced by heat, minor residues are present (within fissures only) • H(c) is a transitional grade between H(b) and H(d) • H(d) – Enhanced by heat, significant residues present (within fissures and cavities). • H(Be) – Enhanced by heat and light elements such as beryllium. Clarity and/or color are enhanced by heat and diffusion of light elements such as beryllium inducing color zoning by internal migration of trace elements (including beryllium) and defects and the formation of color centers. Not corresponding to conventional surface diffusion treatment. The treatment is permanent. Recutting requires special care if thin orange rims are confined to the surface.
The grading of clarity enhancements of emeralds are specified as CE(O): • None • Insignificant • Minor • Minor to Moderate • Moderate • Significant. The comment ‘Non-enhanced clarity features present’, indicates the presence of empty or dried out fissures that were present during examination. If the treatment is graded as ‘moderate’ or ‘significant’, the presence of resin will be explicitly mentioned.
Other possible treatments will be specified on the front page as follows: • Coating • Dyeing • Application of colorless oil and/or epoxy-like resins and/or wax • Irradiation (application of nuclear bombardment) • Conventional surface diffusion treatment or any combination of the above.
Common abbreviations used on GRS reports; • LIBS – Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy • FTIR – Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy • EDXRF – Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence • PL – Photoluminescence • UV-VIS – Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy
Any opinion on the quality and rarity of the gemstone under investigation is issued only upon request and only if the stone meets GRS’ internal requirements. It represents an opinion based on the practical experience of the laboratory. The laboratory may refuse the issuance of a gemstone report at any time. Unless expressly agreed upon otherwise, the client agrees not to hold GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG liable for the loss or damage of the gemstone resulting from risks that may occur during the transportation and delivery process, including robbery and theft; during the examination process, including color and clarity alteration or other alteration of the object or gem material including removal of fissure fillings in the gem material; and while the gemstone is in the possession of GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG, including theft negligence and natural acts of God. And unless expressly agreed otherwise, GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG cannot be held responsible for any consequences resulting from incomplete or erroneous data on this report such as errors in dimension and weight measurements, typing errors and errors in the determination of the authenticity, country of origin and errors in the declaration of treatments. Furthermore, the client and all other persons to whom the client may distribute, show, or transfer this gemstone report for any use and for any purpose cannot hold GRS Gemresearch Swisslab AG liable. Any abusive use of GRS gemstone reports is not permitted. The conclusion on this report reflects our findings at the time it was issued, respectively at the time when the referred object was analysed. A gemstone can be modified and / or enhanced at any time. These conditions form an integral part of the contract insofar that the parties to the contract do not expressly agree otherwise, the contract is subject to Swiss law, particularly with regards to regulations concerning the contract completion, fulfilment and examination conditions. Any disputes in connection with the contract will be subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of Lucerne, Switzerland. The parties waive the jurisdiction guarantee of places of their private residence.
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